Grant County

China Doctor Grant County

Ah Hee Diggings. Grant County.
Ah Hee Diggings is about one mile north of the community of Granite, next to Granite Creek in the Granite Mining District. Covering approximately 60 acres, the site shows evidence of Chinese living facilities, a mess hall, extensive ditch system, and rows of stacked rock. Records indicate Chinese had worked claims in the area as early as 1867. See Chinese Walls, Grant County. Reference: Wegars 1995: 34-38, 61-64; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Hann n.d.

Ah Hee Reservoir. Grant County.
Ah Hee Reservoir was on Granite Creek within the Granite Mining District. It was a water holding facility used for hydraulic mining, feed by small ditches from Granite Creek and Last Chance Creek. Reference: Wegars 1995: 127; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Ah Hee Walls. Grant County.
Ah Hee Walls, also known as Chinese Walls, are located within the Ah Hee Diggings and is the result of Chinese miners' hand-stacking rocks in a manner that appears to form walls. The rocks are concentrated by hydraulic mining and must be moved in order to retrieve the gold and/or allow for further hydraulic and placer mining. See Ah Hee Diggings, Grant County. Reference: Wegars 1995: 42. Photo.

Ah Heng Mining Complex, Grant County.
Ah Heng Mining Complex was located on a tributary of the Middle Fork John Day River on Forest Service Road 2090. The Ah Heng Company leased 17 acres in 1887. The mine was a combination of placer and hydraulic gold mining. Remnants of a Chinese blacksmith operation are apparent. Reference: Hann, n.d.

Ah Yee Placer Mine, Grant County.
The Ah Yee Placer Mine covered 150 acres of the Vincent Creek drainage area near its confluence with the Middle Fork John Day River. Ah Yee and Company purchased the claims in 1869. Reference: Hann, n.d.

Blue Gulch. Grant County.
The stream in Blue Gulch flows northward into Canyon Creek north of Canyon City in the Canyon Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicate Chinese mining activity in the gulch. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, John Day, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Canton Street. Grant County.
Canton Street (today’s NW Canton Street) was the main street of the John Day Chinatown. See John Day Chinatown, Grant County. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 92. Photo.

Canyon Creek. Grant County.
Canyon Creek flows north past Canyon City where it joins the John Day River. It was the center of the Canyon Creek Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicate the Chinese mined the creek. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, John Day, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Canyon City Chinatown. Grant County.
Canyon City Chinatown began shortly after 1862 when gold was discovered nearby in what became known as the Canyon Creek Mining District. The Chinatown had several hundred occupants, mostly from Sze Yup District near Canton, China. When Canyon City Chinatown burned in 1885, the Sze Yup relocated to John Day Chinatown where they became the dominant group, displacing those from Sam Yup. See John Day Chinatown, Grant County. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 9, 12, 25; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

China Cap. Grant County.
China Cap is a peak standing 3490 feet above sea level. It's somewhat conical shape has an appearance similar to the peasant hat worn by Chinese in the 1800's. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, Turner Mountain, Oregon, 1980.

China Diggings Mine. Grant County.
China Diggings Mine is on the west side of nearby Granite Boulder Creek within the Greenhorn Mining District. It was a site of Chinese placer gold mining. Reference: Wagner 1995; U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, Boulder Butte, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

China Ditch. Grant County.
The ditch was constructed by Chinese in order to bring water to the hydraulic mining that took place near Prairie City within the nearby Canyon Creek Mining District during the late 1800s. Reference: Edson 1974: 19; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

China Gulch. Grant County.
The stream in China Gulch flows into Granite Creek within the Granite Mining District. The gulch itself was the site of extensive gold mining activity. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

China Hat Spring. Grant County.
China Hat Spring is located between Widows Creek in the west and Wikiup Creek in the east. The spring is within the Canyon Creek Mining District. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Big Weasel Spring, Oregon, 1998; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

China Meadow. Grant County.
China Meadow is in the Granite Mining District and lies between McCarty Creek and Wagner Gulch approximately ½ mile northwest of the community of Granite. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Silver Butte, Oregon, 1980; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

China Peak. Grant County.
China Peak stands 4449 feet above sea level between Cottonwood Creek and Straight Creek. Its roughly conical shape has an appearance similar to the peasant hat worn by Chinese in the 1800s. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ Series, Courthouse Rock, Oregon, 1980.

Chinaman Trail. Grant County.
Chinaman Trail trends in a northerly direction from the aqueduct connecting Olive Lake and North Fork Creek in the North Fork Mining District. Placer gold mining began in the district in 1860's. Reference:  U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Olive Lake, Oregon, 1980; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Chinese Walls. Grant County.
Chinese Walls are between the North Fork John Day Campground and the town of Granite along an eight mile stretch of National Service Forest Road 73. The walls were created by Chinese placer miners who removed and stacked rocks from and along Granite Creek in their effort to retrieve gold. Reference: “Recreational Opportunities: Blue Mountains Scenic Bypass.”; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Trout Meadows, Oregon, 1995.

Dixie Creek Chinese Mines. Grant County.
Dixie Creek flows southward through Prairie City into the John Day River in the Quartzburg Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicate Chinese mining activity along Dixie Creek. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Prairie City, Oregon, 1996; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Dixie Meadow Mine. Grant County.
Dixie Meadow Mine is on North Fork Dixie Creek that flows into Dixie Creek within the Quartzburg Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicate Chinese mining activity in and around the mine. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dixie Meadows, Oregon, 1996; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Dutch Flat. Grant County.
Dutch Flat is adjacent to Dutch Flat Creek that flows northeast into North Powder River. Grant County records indicate that Chinese miners were active in the area. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Rock Creek, Oregon, 1984.

Granite City Chinatown. Grant County.
Granite Chinatown was on the upper part of today’s Main Street in Granite City. The Chinatown consisted of stores, a butcher shop, tailor, residences, etc., serving the needs of the Chinese miners in the Granite Mining District. The 1870 census reported 365 Chinese with the 1910 census indicating no Chinese living there. Reference: McConnell 1979; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; Wegars 1995: 38, 4; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Granite Creek. Grant County.
Granite Creek has hydraulic mine tailings extending about three miles along its course near Granite City. It was the center of the Granite Creek Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicate the Chinese placer mined throughout. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Grant County Historical Museum, Grant County.
The museum is at 101 S. Canyon City Boulevard, Canyon City. It has an exhibit of Chinese artifacts from the area.
 
Happy Camp Chinese Mining Complex. Grant County.
Happy Camp Chinese Mining Complex was located on Dixie Creek, a tributary of Eagle Creek, and was near the North Fork Mining District. Chinese miners reworked the tailings from an earlier hydraulic mining effort. Reference: Steeves 1984: 148; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Harve Fields Ranch. Grant County.
Harve Fields, owner of one of the earliest ranches in the John Day Valley, hired only Chinese who worked as sheepherders, cowboys, and cooks. A Chinese with the nickname, “Buckaroo Sam,” was the ranch foreman. Sam spent years also working at the Stuart Ranch. He was a contemporary of Doc Hay. See Kam Wah Chung & Co. Building, Grant County. Reference: Parks, Annette White 1985; Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2007: 44-45. 

Horseshoe Bar. Grant County.
Horseshoe Bar is located at the mouth of Horseshoe Creek where it joins North Fork Malheur River near the Canyon Creek Mining District. The area was hydraulic mined in the 1880's. Grant Count records indicate Chinese miners worked the area. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Little Baldy Mountain, Oregon1998; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Humbolt Mine. Grant County.
The Humboldt Mine, established in 1862, was one of the earliest along Canyon Creek in the Canyon Creek Mining District. It was originally a placer operation and by the 1880's, it employed hydraulic mining techniques. The Chinese who worked there received 5-10% of the annual yield as their share. Reference: Steeves 1984: 113; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

Ing Hay Way. Grant County.
Ing Hay Way joins NW Canton Street in the town of John Day. The 100-foot-long road leads to the Kam Wah Chung & Co. building. Reference: Oregon Parks and Recreation Department 2009. Photo.

Ing Hay and Lung On Gravesite, Grant County.
Ing Hay (1864-1952) and Lung On (1863-1940) are buried at Rest Lawn Cemetery, Row 13, town of John Day. Ing Hay was an herbalist and pulseologist while Lung On was a translator and businessman. They owned and operated the Kam Wah Chung & Company together. See Ing Hay Way, Grant County; Kam Wah Chung & Company Building, Grant County; Kam Wah Chung & Company Museum, Grant County; "Lung On (1863-1940)", Grant County; Lung On Car Dealership, Grant County. Reference: Ortnan n.d.

John Day Chinatown. Grant County.
By 1887, the John Day Chinatown had three stores, a Joss house, laundry, and vegetable gardens. A fish pond and duck pond occupied depressions left from gold dredging. At its height, the population was 500-600, with those from the Sze Yup district near Canton, China displacing those from the Sam Yup District, China. By 1940, the population was less than 20. The site of the Chinatown is now the John Day City Park. See Canton Street, Grant County. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 9, 13, 40, 41; Wegars 1995: 26.

John Day Joss House. Grant County.
John Day Joss House was a one-story structure near the Kam Wah Chung & Co. building in the John Day Chinatown. The Taoist temple was the spiritual focus of the Chinatown. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 111.

Junction Bar. Grant County.
 Junction Bar is located at Junction Creek where the creek enters South Fork John Day River near the Canyon Creek Mining District. Grant County records indicate Chinese mined the area. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Suplee Butte, Oregon, 1992; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

Kam Wah Chung & Co. Building. Grant County.
Located in the John Day Chinatown, the structure was built in 1866-1867 by Chinese. Its thick walls and iron shutters on the exterior of the building suggest it was originally a fortified trading post along the Dallas-Boise Military Road. The building was purchased by Chinese in 1889, eventually becoming the Kam Wah Chung & Co. store. A second story was added to the store in the 1890's in anticipation of an increase in business resulting from new nearby gold discoveries and the prospect of railroad construction. The increase and railroad did not occur. The last owners were Ing “Doc” Hay, a pulseologist and Lung On, a businessman who became the first in John Day to install a telephone and electricity. Through the years, the building served as a general store, medical office, hiring hall, and post office. After the death of Lung On in 1940, Ing Hay continued to operate the store until 1948 when illness caused him to relocate to Portland. Upon his death in 1952, his heir effectively sealed the store, deeding it to the City of John Day in 1955 with the stipulation that it become a museum. See Kam Wah Chung & Co. Museum. Reference: McConnell 1979: 57-58; Barlow and Richardson 1979: 13, 28-29, 39, 40; Hagemeier 2004: C1, C8; Mariner, 2018. Photo.

Kam Wah Chung & Co. Museum. Grant County.
The Kam Wah Chung & Co. building served as a social and economic focus of the John Day Chinatown from the 1860's to the early 1950's. The heir of Ing Hay, the last owner, gave the building to the City of John Day in 1955. It sat closed and undisturbed for years. When work began on converting it to a museum in the 1970's, the building proved to be a time capsule containing a complete Chinese store of the nineteenth century. It held artifacts, documents, equipment, furniture, herbal remedies, food stuffs, dry goods, mining and carpentry tools and more. Having been the residence of Ing Hay, his daily life was preserved to include a small Taoist shrine. Converting the store into a museum involved Oregon State Parks and Recreation, Oregon Department of Transportation, National Park Service, American Revolution Bicentennial Committee, National Trust, Oregon Historical Society, and Friends of the Kam Wah Chung Museum. See Kam Wah Chung & Co. Building, Grant County. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 13, 28-29, 96. Photo.

Lung On Car Dealership. Grant County.
Lung On’s Pontiac car dealership was on Main Street in the town of John Day. It was the first automobile dealership in Eastern Oregon and Lung On was probably the first Chinese American auto dealer in the United States. Adjacent was his service station known as The Tourist Garage. Reference: “Lung On (1863-1940)”; Powell 1990: 11; Grant County, Oregon. History and Genealogy 1998. Photo.

Marysville Mining Area. Grant County.
The Marysville Mining area is in the Canyon Creek Mining District about two miles southeast of Canyon City. It was first mined in 1862. Chinese artifacts have been found throughout the area. Reference: Steeves 1984: 116; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Monument Chinatown. Grant County.
Monument Chinatown in the community of Monument was on present-day Highway 402 at the North Fork John Day River. When the gold in that part of the Canyon Creek Mining District played out, the Chinese went to new areas. Reference: McConnell 1979; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Monument, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Mount Vernon Chinatown. Grant County.
Mount Vernon Chinatown, in the community of Mount Vernon on Highway 26, was a short-lived concentration of Chinese. It quickly disappeared as gold mining in that portion of the Canyon Creek Mining District diminished. Reference: McConnell 1979; Wegars 1995: 11; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Mount Vernon, Oregon, 1998; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999. 

Olive Creek. Grant County.
Olive Creek joins Clear Creek which flows into Granite Creek within the Granite Mining District. Grant County records and map information indicates Chinese miners worked the extensive placer deposits of Olive Creek. Reference: Steeves 1984: 201; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; Wegars 1995: 11. 

Oriental Creek. Grant County.
Oriental Creek flows south into North Fork of John Day River within the North Fork Mining District. There are considerable mine tailings in the area and the name, suggesting placer mining by the Chinese. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Kelsay Butte, Oregon, 1995; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Oriental Creek Campground and Trailhead. Grant County.
 Oriental Creek Campground and Trailhead is at the mouth of Oriental Creek. The unimproved Forest Service campground is in the John Day Wilderness of Umatilla National Forest, approximately 24 miles southeast of the town of Dale on Forest Service Road 5506. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Kelsay Butte, Oregon, 1995.

Prairie City Chinatown. Grant County.
The small and ephemeral Prairie City Chinatown served the Chinese miners who worked in the nearby Greenhorn and Quartzburg Mining Districts. Grant County records indicate that the Chinese owned mining claims there. Reference: McConnell 1979; Steeves 1984: 201; Wegars 1995: 11; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Prairie City, Oregon, 1996; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Red Boy Mine. Grant County.
The Red Boy mine in the Greenhorn Mining District near Granite City was jointly mined by Chinese and non-Chinese in 1882. Reference: Steeves 1984: 147; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Rock Creek. Grant County.
Rock Creek joins the North Powder River in the Greenhorn Mining District. The creek has experienced extensive mining activity by Chinese. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Rock Creek Oregon,1984; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Ruby Creek Chinese Mine. Grant County.
Owned by the Chinese, the mine was a hydraulic mining operation in the Greenhorn Mining District. Two of the Chinese miners were hired to work as cooks at the Dixie Meadows Mine. Reference:  Steeves 1984: 148; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dixie Meadows, Oregon,1996; Grant County, Oregon. History and Genealogy 1998; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999.

Salmon Creek Chinese Placer Mine. Grant County.
Salmon Creek Chinese Placer Mine is in the Greenhorn Mining District near the junction of Placer Ditch on Salmon Creek approximately one mile northwest of Robinsonville. The area has been extensively mined. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Vinegar Hill, Oregon, 1995;
Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; “Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County” 2004.
 
Susanville Chinatown. Grant County.
The Chinatown of Susanville began in 1864. Short lived, it supported the Chinese miners working along the Middle Fork John Day River in the Susanville and Greenhorn Mining Districts. Reference: McConnell 1979; Wegars 1995: 11; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1999. 

Wild Granite Chinese Walls Historic Site. Grant County.
Wild Granite Chinese Walls Historic Site is on the north side of National Forest Service Road 73 approximately 1.6 miles north of the town of Granite. The specific place is representative of the rock stacking done by Chinese placer miners in their effort to retrieve placer gold. On December 20, 1981, the National Park Service certified Chinese Walls as a national historic site. See Chinese Walls, Grant County. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995; “Wild Granite Chinese Walls Historic Site.

References

Barlow, Jeffrey and Christine Richardson. 1979. China Doctor of John Day. Portland, Oregon: Binford and Mort.

“Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County.” http://www.oregongenealogy.com/ Accessed October 18, 2010.

Eastern Oregon Mining Association. 1999. Oregon Gold Mining: Grant County Gold Districts. http://www.h2oaccess.com/ Accessed November 1, 2010.

Edson, Christopher H. 1974. The Chinese in Eastern Oregon. San Francisco: R&E Research Associates.

Grant County, Oregon. History and Genealogy. 1998. http://www.gesswhoto.com/ Accessed November 2, 2010.

Hagemeier, Heidi. 2004. “Ghosts of Chinatown.” The Bulletin. May 16: C1, C8.

Hann, Don. N.d. "Ah Hee Diggings." 
https://exploringapaheritage.com/ Accessed April 23, 2019.

_______. N.d. "Ah Heng Placer Mine." https://exploringapaheritage.com/ Accessed January 27, 2022.

_______. N.d. "Ah Yee Placer Mine." https://exploringapaheritage.com/ Accessed January 15, 2022.

“Lung On (1863-1940).” Oregon Encyclopedia. http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/ Accessed March 6, 2021.

Mariner, Cosmos. 2018. "Kam Wah Chung Building." https://www.hmdb.org/ Accessed January 12, 2022. 

McConnell, Gregory. 1979. “An Historical Geography of the Chinese in Oregon.” Masters thesis. University of Oregon.

Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. 2007. Dreams of the West. Portland, Oregon: Ooligan Press, Portland State University.

Oregon Parks and Recreation Department. 2009. Kam Wah Chung Draft Plan. http://www.oregon.gov/ Accessed November 29, 2010.

Ortnan, Matthew. N.d. "Eng Hay and Lung On Gravesite." https://exploringapaheritage.com/ Accessed January 17, 2022.

Parks, Annette White. 1985. “Emmet White; Reminiscences of a Rimrocker, Part IV.” Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 86, Summer.

Powell, Linda. 1990. Asian Americans in Oregon. Corvallis, Oregon: Agricultural Fiscal and Personnel Services, Oregon State University.

“Recreational Opportunities. Blue Mountains Scenic Bypass.” U.S. Forest Service, Umatilla National Forest. http://www.fs.fed.us/ Accessed December 13, 2010.

Steeves, Laban R. 1984. “Chinese Gold Miners of Northeastern Oregon, 1862-1900.” Masters thesis. University of Oregon.

Wagner, N.S. 1945. Middle Fork of the John Day Placers. Oregon Division of Geology and Mines Information File Report.

U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Big Weasel Spring, Oregon, 1998.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dixie Meadows, Oregon, 1996.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Courthouse Rock, Oregon, 1980.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Granite, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle 7.5’ series, Boulder Butte, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, John Day, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Kelsay Butte, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Little Baldy Mountain, Oregon, 1998.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Monument, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Mount Vernon, Oregon, 1998.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Olive Lake, Oregon, 1980.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Prairie City, Oregon, 1996.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Rock Creek, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Silver Butte, Oregon, 1980.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Suplee Butte, Oregon, 1992.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1999.

_______. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Trout Meadows, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle 7.5’ series, Turner Mountain, Oregon, 1980.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Vinegar Hill, Oregon, 1995.

Wegars, Priscilla. 1995. The Ah Hee Diggings: Final Report of the Archaeological Investigations at OR-GR-16, the Granite, Oregon “Chinese Walls” Site, 1992-1994. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Anthropology Reports.

“Wild Granite Chinese Walls Historic Site.” T8S Range 351/2 east of Willamette Meridian, Oregon. http://www.blm.gov/ Accessed December 15, 2010.