Baker County

Baker County Chinese


Auburn Chinese Cemeteries. Baker County.
There were at least two Chinese cemeteries in the community of Auburn. By the time of the demise of Auburn Chinatown, those interred in a cemetery had been exhumed and the bones shipped to China. At least one of the cemeteries were destroyed in a “second washing of gold.” Reference: Alexander 1972: 50; Wegars 1995: 34.

Auburn Ditch. Baker County.
Auburn Ditch, a 25 mile long canal, was built by Chinese laborers in 1863. Reference: Mead 2006: 62.

Auburn Joss House. Baker County.
The original Auburn Joss House was located in Auburn Chinatown on the second story above a Chinese-owned store. Reference: Wegars 1995: 32-33.

Baker City Chinatown. Baker County.
In 1870, Baker City Chinatown was located at the southeastern edge of the downtown business district with the Powder River flowing along its easternmost edge. By 1886, it contained a half dozen stores and a population of about 400. The residents were miners, laundry men, cooks, wood sawyers, servants, vegetable gardeners, tailor, butcher, herb doctor, and fishermen who fished the Powder River for chub and suckers. Both the vegetables and fish were sold to the larger community. By 1903, the Chinatown was bounded by Valley Avenue, Auburn Avenue, Resort Street, and the Powder River. Reference: Dielman 2008: 96-97; Sanborn Insurance Map 1903; Wesley 1949: 84, 87-88.
Baker City Chinese Pavilion. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Pavilion is situated in the Baker City Chinese Cemetery within the town of Baker City. It commemorates the Chinese who were interred in the cemetery. The pavilion’s dedication ceremony was held on August 24, 2002 and was attended by representatives of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of Portland, local community leaders, and those who donated their time and resources in the pavilion’s construction. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon, Object No. 2008.2.1. Photo.

Baker City Joss House. Baker County.
The joss house on Auburn Street in the Baker City Chinatown was completed in 1882-83. It was a two story, red brick structure measuring 20 feet by 45 feet with a balcony and porch in front. The interior was finished with hardwood. The first floor was used for social activities with the second floor containing a large sitting Buddha and altar upon which was a statue of Quan Yin. The structure was razed after 1941. Reference: Edson 1974: 67; Evans 1993: 6; Nokes 2009: 174-75; Wesley 1949: 87.
Baker City Chinese Cemetery. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Cemetery is located just outside Baker City at the end of Campbell Street, east of Interstate 84. Through the years, it fell into disrepair because of a lack of understanding as to its ownership. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) learned that it was the owner when a judge ordered a title search in a related land acquisition issue in 1991. The CCBA subsequently joined with the Baker County Historical Society in renovating the cemetery. With the help of Chinese American students and other volunteers, the cemetery was cleaned and a chain fence erected. The funeral burner was restored and a marker stone and path through the cemetery were also installed. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Nokes 2009: 176-77; Steele 1993: 5.

Baker City Chinese Cemetery Marker. Baker County.
A carved stone maker in the Baker City Chinese Cemetery commemorates those who had been interred there. The marker lists 17 names, out of the approximately 67, who were buried there before their remains were disinterred and shipped to China. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.8. Photo. 

Baker City Chinese Cemetery Funeral Burner. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Cemetery Burner was a prominent feature in the original cemetery. It was a square structure made of cut stone with an opening through which incense and prayer papers could be inserted and burned. Traditionally, the burner was used most frequently during the Ching Ming ceremony. It was in use from 1880 to 1940, being dismantled shortly thereafter. A restoration of the burner was accomplished using the original cut stones. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 1981.1.6806. Photo.

Baker City Chinese Gardens. Baker County.
The Chinese grew vegetables in an area on Spring Garden Avenue as well as on the west side of town. They were consumed by the Chinese and sold to non-Chinese. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Wegars 1995: 15.

Battle Creek Chinese Massacre. Baker County.
According to the lone Chinese survivor, Piute Indians killed approximately 40 Chinese miners near Battle Creek in 1866. The name Battle Creek is attributed to a fight between two Native American groups in 1870. Reference: Edson 1974: 13; McArthur 1982: 44.

China Creek Corral Pond. Baker County.
China Creek Corral Pond drains in a northerly direction joining South China Spring and is within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek1. Baker County.
The water source of China Creek is Elk Camp Spring within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. From there, China Creek flows approximately 4.5 miles in a southwesterly direction until its water is captured by China Creek Ditch. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek2. Baker County.
China Creek2 flows northeast into North Fork Burnt River near the Greenhorn Mining District. The area has widespread dredge tailings. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Greenhorn, Oregon, 1995.

China Creek Ditch. Baker County.
China Creek Ditch captures China Creek1 at 44°35'10″N 118°10'54″W, carrying its water approximately nine miles to form an intermittent lake at 44°33'21″N 118°10'10″W. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek Spring. Baker County.
China Creek Spring is approximately two miles northwest of China Creek. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Diggings. Baker County.
China Diggings were an area of placer mines on a hillside near the town of Sumpter. Reference: Wegars 1995: 24.

China Gate. Baker County.
China Gate is within the Baker City’s Leo Adler Memorial Parkway, a 2.5-mile riverside park and pathway connecting a series of eight public spaces adjacent to the Powder River in the City of Baker. The gate is tentatively located near Valley Avenue, part of the original Baker City Chinatown. Reference: Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities 2000; Leo Adler Memorial Parkway n.d.; “Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City” 2008.

China Gulch Placer Mine. Baker County.
China Gulch Placer Mine was located opposite Pole Creek, two miles north of Sumpter. China Gulch is shown as Slim Creek on current U.S.G.S. 7.5’ series maps. Mine tailings extend from north of China Gulch down Cracker Creek and past the town of Sumpter, all part of the Sumpter/Cracker Creek Mining District. Baker County records indicate China Gulch Placer Mine was operated by Chinese. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

China Lake. Baker County.
China Lake is southeast of China Creek at an elevation of 6731 feet above sea level. It is within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984. Photo.

China Spring. Baker County.
China Springs is within Foster Gulch, approximately three miles southwest of the community of Halfway. It lies within the Eagle Creek/Sparta Mining District where placer gold mining dates to the 1860's. Chinese miners had purchased much of the claims in the Eagle Creek District by 1872. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Richland, Oregon, 1984.

China Town. Baker County.
The historic community of China Town (two words) was approximately two miles west of Clarksville on Clarks Creek. By 1900, its Chinese population was 200, serving the miners of nearby Upper Burnt Creek River Mining District. The locale occasionally appears in the literature as Clarksville Chinatown. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon, Record No.133/907; McConnell 1979; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

Chinese Gardens. Baker County.
Chinese Gardens is part of the Baker City’s Leo Adler Memorial Parkway, a 2.5-mile riverside park and pathway connecting a series of eight public spaces adjacent to the Powder River in the City of Baker. The gardens will be located near China Gate and the Community Confluence and Celebration Space. Reference: Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities 2000; Leo Adler Memorial Parkway n.d.; “Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City” 2008.

Chinese Wall. Baker County.
Chinese Wall is made of rocks stacked by Chinese as a result of their placer mining along Union Creek north of Phillips Lake. Reference: Britton 2005; Brooks 2007: 105. Photo.

Clarksville Chinatown. Baker County.
Clarksville Chinatown, identified on maps as China Town, grew quickly and declined faster as the gold in the area was depleted. Baker County records and map information indicate that the Chinese conducted gold mining activity in the area surrounding Clarksville, particularly in the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Steeves 1984; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

Deer Creek Chinese Camp. Baker County.
Deer Creek Chinese Camp was on the Deer Creek, approximately 2½ miles northeast of the town of Sumpter. The Chinese owned the Sumpter Mining District claim, reportedly generating $3 per day per person. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Wegars 1995: 11.

Downie Creek Chinese Mine. Baker County.
Downie Creek Chinese Mine is on Downie Creek near McCully Fork of the Powder River, northwest of Sumpter. It is within the Sumpter/Cracker Creek Mining District. It was leased to the Chinese who were producing $9000 per year by 1900. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 147.

East China Spring. Baker County.
East China Spring is about ¾ miles southeast of China Creek within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam, Oregon, 1984.

Eldorado Ditch. Baker County.
Originally only in Baker County, Eldorado Ditch was extended to the point where it ran across today’s Baker and Malheur Counties. Constructed from 1863 to 1878 by as many as 1000 Chinese laborers, it may be the longest canal in Oregon, measuring 135 miles in length with an 800 foot change in elevation over its length. It measured 8.5 feet wide at the top and 6 feet wide at the base, being 3 feet deep. The ditch brought water from Willow Creek Basin to the Shasta Mining District. The Ah Fat Company was the major labor contractor for the construction. A court decree and subsequent lack of maintenance and road construction in the area marked its disuse in 1925. Reference: Brooks 2007: 45; Evans 1993: 6; Mead 2006: 104; North Fork Malheur Geographic Management Area 2007: 77; Wegars 1995: 57-58.

Elk Creek Mine. Baker County.
Elk Creek flows southwest into the Middle Fork of John Day River. The area around the mine has experienced extensive placer and hard rock mining. Baker County records indicate Chinese ownership of the mine. Reference: Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1990.

Ellis Mine. Baker County.
 Ellis mine was between Cracker Creek and McCully Fork of the Powder River near the Rock Creek/Cracker Creek Mining District. Chinese miners leased the area and performed hydraulic mining throughout in the late 1800's. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 147; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

Gimlet Placer Chinese Mining Site. Baker County.
The Gimlet Placer Chinese Mining Site is on the east bank of Gimlet Creek within the Sumpter/Greenhorn Mining District. It is adjacent to Forest Service Road 7386 in an area of widespread placer mining that started in the 1860's and hard rock mining dating to 1880. Chinese artifacts at the site suggest that the Chinese worked the placer deposits. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Jaehnig 1997; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Whitney, Oregon, 1984.

Gold Rush RV Park. Baker County.
Gold Rush RV Park is located in the town of Sumpter at 680 Cracker Creek Road. The park was the site of Chinese placer mining as early as the 1880's. The stacked rocks resulting from the mining are still evident. Reference: Historic Sumpter 2003.

Hogem Ditch. Baker County.
The ditch ran from the West Fork of Creek to the town of Hogem. Although dug by non-Chinese in 1864, Ah Wah and Wing Lee bought an interest in it in July, 1870, under the name Wing Lee and Co. Ditch maintenance was then performed by 40-50 Chinese. Wing Lee sold his interest in October, 1870. Reference: Wegars 1995: 54.

Lily White Mine Disaster. Baker County.
Located northeast of Baker City in the Wallowa Mountains, the Lily White Gold Mine is thought to be the source of unverified stories about as many as 100 or as few as 13, Chinese miners being trapped in the mine sometime between 1886 and 1889. Either through a cave-in or the mine owner dynamiting the entrance so he would not need to pay the Chinese, the ghosts of the miners are said to be seen singing and dancing above the mine entrance on moon-lit nights. The U.S. Forest Service opened the mine in 2010 and found no evidence of foul play. References: Nokes 2009: 79; Nokes 1995: Dec. 21, C2; Wegars 1995:54.

McCully Fork Chinese Encampment. Baker County.
McCully Fork Chinese Encampment was where McCully Fork joins the Powder River within the Sumpter Mining District west of the town of Sumpter. The Chinese worked the tailings resulting from hydraulic mining. Reference: “Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County”; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta, Oregon,1985.

McEwen Chinatown. Baker County.
McEwen Chinatown was part of McEwen, a small gold mining town on the Powder River about five miles southeast of Sumpter. The Chinatown supported Chinese activity in nearby Upper Burnt Creek, Rock Creek, and Sumpter Mining Districts. Ah Fong, who owned a store there, was the last Chinese in the town by 1910. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Record No. 582/907. Object No. 1992.1.838.; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984; Wegars 1995: 13.

Minersville Chinese Encampment. Baker County.
Minersville Chinese Encampment was located on the East Fork of Miners Creek, approximately 2.5 miles northeast of McEwen. It was in the Sumpter/Rock Creek Mining Districts, an area characterized by numerous hard rock mines with mine tailings in the Powder River. Reference: Anonymous 2004; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984.

Packwood Ditch. Baker County.
Packwood Ditch brought water from Eagle Creek to the Kooster, Shanghai, and Powder River mines. It was constructed by as many as 300 Chinese laborers. Reference: Mead 2006: 108.

Poker Gulch. Baker County.
The seasonal stream of Poker Gulch flows southward into the Powder River near the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Poker Gulch appears as Poker Creek on current U.S.G.S. series 7.5’ maps. Baker County records and map information indicate the Chinese conducted mining activity in the gulch. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Blue Canyon, Oregon,1993.

Rye Valley Chinatown. Baker County.
Rye Valley Chinatown was a part of the community of Rye Valley which was located on North Fork of Dixie Creek. It provided support to the Chinese miners who worked the Lower Burnt River Valley and Mormon Basin Mining Districts. The area experienced widespread placer mining from the 1880's to the turn of the century. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Steeves 1984: 119; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Rye Valley, Oregon,1988.

Shanghai Channel. Baker County.
Shanghai Channel was an alternate name for Shanghai Gulch that eventually became known as Shanghai Creek. Chinese miners worked the area from the 1870's to the early 1890's. Reference: Steeves 1984: 205.

Shanghai Creek. Baker County.
Shanghai Creek flows northeast into Eagle Creek approximately one mile north of Sparta Butte in the Sparta/Eagle Creek Mining District. The first Chinese mining claim was filed in 1872 and soon thereafter they owned much of the claims in the Eagle Creek Mining District. Evidence of Chinese residences as well as artifacts, suggests that the name was derived from their presence. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Edson 1974; Steeves 1984: 68-93, 203-205; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988; Wagner, N.S. 1943.

Shanghai Falls. Baker County.
Shanghai Falls is the narrow, steep-sided portion of Shanghai Creek as it flows through Shanghai Gulch. The falls begin about 2000 feet upstream from where the creek joins Eagle Creek. The place name is derived from its water source, Shanghai Creek. The loss of 1000 feet in elevation within 2000 feet offers a spectacular sight in the rainy season. Reference: Steeves 1984: 87.

Shanghai Gulch. Baker County.
Shanghai Gulch was an early name for Shanghai Creek, a tributary to Eagle Creek. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988.

South China Spring. Baker County.
South China Spring is approximately one mile southeast of China Creek in the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon, 1984.

Sparta Chinatown. Baker County.
Sparta Chinatown, with a population that reached about 1000, was located in the mining town of Sparta. The residents of Chinatown worked primarily as miners and laborers, usually in the Sparta and Eagle Creek Mining Districts. The Chinatown population decreased rapidly as railroad and ditch construction projects ended and the yield of gold from local mines declined. A fire in 1917 destroyed most of the buildings in Sparta as well as the Chinatown. The photograph at the top of the page shows Sparta Chinatown resident Ah Wing in traditional Chinese attire playing a san hsien (three string instrument). Reference: Bradley n.d.; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Meade 2006: 109; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta, Oregon,1985.

Sparta Ditch. Baker County.
Sparta Ditch connected Eagle Creek to the Thorn Gulch mines. Approximately 300 Chinese laborers were involved in its construction in 1871. The ditch was 32 miles in length. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Varon n.d.; Wegars 1995: 56-57.

Sumpter Chinatown. Baker County.
Sumpter Chinatown was located on the west side of Cracker Creek in the town of Sumpter. Chinese miners were working placer deposits of gold in the area by 1874. The Chinatown had stores, a restaurant, residences, and a civic organization. By 1917, gold production from the mines was minimal with a fire destroying much of Sumpter as well as Chinatown. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541; Wegars 1995: 11, 24.

Sumpter Chinese Cemetery. Baker County.
The Sumpter Chinese Cemetery was on Auburn Street in the town of Sumpter. Disinterment and shipping of the remains occurred in 1903 with the last occurring in the 1930's. Reference: Wegars 1995: 24-25.

Sumpter Valley Railroad. Baker County.
 Sumpter Valley Railroad was built by Chinese laborers, starting in 1890. It extended from Baker City to Prairie City, arriving in 1896. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 39.

Union Creek Chinese Mining Site. Baker County.
Union Creek flows into today’s Phillips Lake on the Powder River. Chinese placer mining in the area was evident as indicated by numerous Chinese artifacts. Reference: Steeves 1984: 102-105, 210.

Wing Hing Yuen Company Store. Baker County.
The Wing Hing Yuen Company Store is one of the few identified businesses in the Baker City Chinatown. The store provided general merchandise to the community from the turn of the century to the 1940's. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.13.122.

White Swan Mine. Baker County.
White Swan Mine is an incorrect name for the Lily White Mine. See Lily White Mine Disaster, Baker County.

References

Alexander, Maud Grant. 1972. Uncle Dave Discovers Gold. Pendleton, Oregon: Eastern Oregonian Publications Company.

Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Record No. 582/907. Object No. 1992.1.838. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.


_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.1. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 1981.1.6806. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.13.122. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.8. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

Barlow, Jeffrey and Christine Richardson. 1979. China Doctor of John Day. Portland, Oregon: Binford and Mort.

Bradley, Phyllis. n.d. “Unrefined Sparta in the 19th Century.” http://www.oregongenealogoy. Com/ Accessed November 4, 2010.

Britton, Lisa. 2005. "Chinese Wall on Union Creek." Baker City Herald, July 13.

Brooks, Howard. 2007. A Pictorial History of Gold Mining in the Blue Mountains of Eastern Oregon. Baker City, Oregon: Baker County Historical Society.

“Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County.” http://www.oregongenealogy.com/ Accessed October 15, 2010.

Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities. 2000. Oregon Arts Commission. http://www.oregonartscommission.org/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

Dielman, Gary. 2008. “Discovering Gold in Baker County Library’s 1870-1930s Photograph Collection.” Oregon Historical Quarterly, Spring: 88-87.

Eastern Oregon Mining Association. 1999. Oregon Gold Mining: Baker County Gold Districts. http://www.h2oaccess.com/ Accessed November 18, 2010.

Edson, Christopher H. 1974. The Chinese in Eastern Oregon. San Francisco: R&E Research Association.

Evans, Jim. 1993. “University of Idaho Expert Tells of Chinese History.” Baker City Herald. August 25.

Historic Sumpter. 2003. http://www.historicsumpter.com/ Accessed October 27, 2010.

Jaehnig, Manfred E. W. 1997. Evaluation of Archaeological Deposits at The Gimlet Placer Chinese Site, OR-BA-11, Baker County, Oregon. La Grande, Oregon: Mount Emily Archaeological Services.

Leo Adler Memorial Parkway . n.d. http://www.leoadlerparkway.com/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

McArthur, Lewis. 1982. 5th ed. Oregon Geographic Names. Oregon: The Press of the Oregon Historical Society.

McConnell, Gregory. 1979. “An Historical Geography of the Chinese in Oregon.” Masters thesis, University of Oregon.

Mead, George. 2006. A History of Union County with An appendix the Chinese in Oregon. LaGrande, Oregon: E-Cat Worlds.

Nokes, R. Gregory. 2009. Massacred for Gold. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press.

Nokes, R. Gregory. 1995. “Keeping the Lily White Gold Mine Story Alive.” The Oregonian. December 21, C2.

North Fork Malheur Geographic Management Area. 2007. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vale District, Malheur Resource Area. http://www.blm.gov/ Accessed December 13, 2010.

Sanborn Insurance Map. 1903. Sumpter. New York: Sanborn Map and Publishing Company Limited.

Steele, Jerry. 1993. “Cemetery Question Rests with County.” Baker City Herald. December 16.

Steeves, Laban R. 1984. “Chinese Gold Miners of Northeastern Oregon, 1862-1900.” Masters thesis, University of Oregon.

U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Blue Canyon, Oregon, 1993.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon,1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ Series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Greenhorn, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Richland, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle. 7.5' series, Rye Valley, Oregon, 1988.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1999.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Whitney, Oregon, 1984.

Varon, Jodi n.d. http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/ Accessed November 3, 2013.

“Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City.” Oregon News. 2008. http://www.nps.gov/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

Wagner, N.S. 1943. Shanghai Gulch Placer Mine. Oregon Department of Geology and Mines Information, unpublished file report, Baker Field office.

Wegars, Priscilla. 1995. The Ah Hee Diggings: Final Report of the Archaeological Investigations at OR-GR-16, the Granite, Oregon “Chinese Walls” Site, 1992-1994. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Anthropology Reports.

Wesley, Andrews. 1949. “Baker City in the Eighties.” Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 50: 84-97.