Tuesday, August 8, 2017

Multnomah County

Chinese Multnomah County

82nd Avenue Chinese Neighborhood. Portland.
82nd Avenue Chinese Neighborhood extends along NE 82nd Avenue with its center near NE Brazee Street. Businesses along the thoroughfare include restaurants, grocery stores, bakeries, tea shops, coffee shops, and numerous malls. The relocation of the Hung Far Low restaurant from Second Chinatown to 82nd Avenue indicated that Third Chinatown had “arrived.” Reference: Anonymous3 n.d. “Old Town Chinatown, Portland, Oregon.”

Bing Kung Bow Leong Society Building. Portland.
The two story building, located at 24 N.W. Fourth Avenue, was constructed in 1910. The Bing Kung Bow Leong Society, itself dating to 1914, purchased the building in 1956. It serves as the society’s headquarters and is listed in the national Registry of Historic Places. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places. 1989: Section 7, 38-39.

Bishop Scott Academy. Portland.
The American-born Chinese brigade of the Oregon National Guard held training exercises at the academy. The 35-man brigade was established in 1898 during the Spanish American War and was the only Chinese American one of its kind in the United States. Reference: Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project n.d.; McConnell 1979: 149.

Bong Wai Chen Building. Portland.
Located in Old Chinatown, it was the home of the Chinese bilingual newspaper that has appeared quarterly starting in 1961. It is sponsored by the Consolidated Chinese Benevolent Association. Reference: McConnell 1979: 163.

Burnside Street Maple Trees. Portland.
The street trees along W. Burnside Street are part of the plantings on N.W. Fourth Avenue. As with the flowering cherry trees of Fourth Street, they are intended to create a colorful atmosphere throughout the Portland Old Town/Chinatown Historic District. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places. 1989: Section 7, 4.

C. Gee Wo Chinese Medicine Company. Portland.
The C. Gee Wo Chinese Medicine Company of Portland was on the second floor of the building at 262 ½ Alder Street in 1924. Reference: Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project n.d.

Chinatown Gate. Portland.
The Chinatown gate spans N.W. Fourth Avenue, north of W. Burnside Street. It marks the entrance to the renovated New (Second) Chinatown and as a memorial to Oregon’s pioneer Chinese. The gate was designed in Taiwan, measuring almost 40 feet in height. It is flanked by two large bronze lions, the male on the east and the female on the west. The Chinese words inscribed on the south face of the gate translate as "Portland Chinatown" and the words on the north side translate as "Four Seas, One Family." Its official opening was November 8, 1986. Reference: Oregonian,The, February 13, 1986: D6; Portside, Vol. 12 #1, Winter, 1987:4.

China House. Warrendale.
China House was a bunkhouse for the Chinese workers employed by the Warrendale Cannery in the community of Warrendale. The cannery itself was located midway between the Sandy River and the Hood River on the south side of the Columbia River. Established in 1876, it employed as many as 80 Chinese workers at a time for six months of the year. The workers were provided by the Wang On Company and Wing Sing Long Kee Company, both of Portland. The Chinese came to dominate all aspects of the cannery industry and continued to be important even after the exclusion Act of 1882. Going out of business around 1930, China House and the Warrendale Cannery represents one of the best documented sites of Chinese cannery employment. Reference: Fagan 1993: 215-219.

Chinese American Citizens Alliance Headquarters Building. Portland.
The Chinese American Citizens Alliance (CACA), Portland Lodge headquarters was originally at 211 N.W. Third Avenue in New Chinatown when it was established in 1921. The building is presently the home of the Hip Sing Association. The CACA is a national non-partisan activist organization for Chinese American empowerment and is actively involved in community service. (See Hip Sing Association Building, Multnomah County). Reference: Chinese American Citizens Alliance-Portland Lodge; Email communication April 3, 2011.

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Building. Portland.
The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) building is at 315 N.W. Davis Street. Built in 1910-1911, it was designed by David L. Williams and reflects the architectural style established by the CCBA in San Francisco, California. A renovation project was concluded in 1981. Currently, the building acts as a social gathering place, Chinese school, and museum. The association itself, established in 1890 and known as Jung Wah, was initially located on the second floor of a building at S.W. Second Avenue and Pine Street. It moved to its present building in 1911. The CCBA has functioned as the governing body for Chinese and presently is active in community affairs. (See Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Museum, Portland). Reference: Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2010; McConnell 1979: 144; National Registry of Historic Places. 1989: Section 7, p. 21-23; Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2007: 56, 106. Photo.

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Museum.
Portland. A museum of Chinese artifacts related to the Pacific Northwest is housed on the fourth floor of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association building located at 315 N.W. Davis Street. It opened in 1984. (See Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Building. Open to the public on Saturday). Reference: Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2010; Chinatown Development Commission: 15.

Chinese-English Street Signs. Portland.
Bilingual street signs were installed throughout Portland New Chinatown in May, 1981. Their purpose was to maintain the historic and ethnic character of the area with the money for the signs being raised by the Chinese community. The signs combine a literal and phonetic translation of the street’s English language name. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places. 1989: Section 7, 3.

Chinese Vegetable Gardens. Portland.
Chinese Gardens was located in an east-west direction between Fourteenth and Twenty First Avenues and north to south between Burnside and Market Streets in the area of and along Tanner Creek. The site of extensive vegetable gardening dates to 1879 when the Chinese gardeners sold their produce throughout the Portland area. By 1889, the gardens had expanded beyond Burnside and Fourteenth Streets almost to Jefferson Street. In 1893, a portion of the area was developed into a sports stadium, eventually becoming today’s Providence Park. Limited Chinese vegetable gardening continuing until 1910 when all gardening activity stopped due to urban growth in the area. Reference: Burk, Rich 2006; McConnell 1979: 70-71; Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2007: 70; Wong 2004: 212.

Chinese Vegetable Gardens Satellite. Portland.
A second area of Chinese vegetable gardening developed between Twentieth Avenue and Chapman Street along Jefferson Street by 1901. It was short lived, being gone by 1908. Reference: Wong 2004: 216-17.

Chinese Language School. Portland.
The Chinese Language School is located at 315 N.W. Davis Street within the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association building. The school was established in 1910 by Moy Back Hin who was appointed Consul for the States of Oregon, Idaho, and Washington by the Chinese government in 1908. The school offers studies in Chinese language and culture. (See Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association Building, Portland). Reference: Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2010; McConnell 1979: 147-148 National Registry of Historic Places. 1989: Section 7, 10.

Chinese Memorial Park, Lone Fir Cemetery, Portland.
The Chinese section of Lone Fir Cemetery is in the southwest corner of the cemetery’s 30.5 acres at Morrison Street and S.E. 20th Avenue. It is known as Block 14. The first burials in the cemetery date to 1846 with various Chinese associations purchasing plots in Block 14 as early as the 1870's. Partial records indicate at least 1131 Chinese were interred there. Exhumations occurred in 1928 and 1949, as dictated by Chinese custom, with the bones returned to China. Subsequent construction on the site revealed additional remains; prompting the area to eventually be designated a memorial park commemorating the Chinese pioneers. Reference: Associated Press 2004: 1; McConnell 1979: 128.

Chinese Presbyterian Church, Portland.
Located at 107 N.W. Third Avenue, the building was constructed in 1892. However, the Chinese did not purchase the building until 1942. A fire destroyed all but the front in 1974 with the area behind becoming a parking lot. The Chinese Presbyterian Church itself dates 1885 with its original facility on 117 N.W. Third Avenue. It is now located at 4937 S.E. Woodstock Boulevard. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 26-27.

Fong Chong Grocery and Restaurant Building. Portland.
The Fong Chong Grocery and Restaurant building was constructed at 301 N.W. Fourth Avenue in 1905. Presently a one story building, a fire caused the upper two levels to be removed in 1979. Fong Chong Grocery and Restaurant have occupied the structure since 1932. Seid Back Jr., a prominent Chinese American attorney and activist, owned the building from 1927-1934. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 55-56.

Fourth Avenue Street Cherry Trees. Portland.
To help create the atmosphere of Portland Old Town/Chinatown Historic District, oriental flowering cherry trees were planted along N.W. Fourth Avenue from Burnside Street to Everett Street and along the cross streets for one half block on either side. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 4.

Gee How Oak Tin Association Building. Portland.
The Gee How Oak Tin Association building, with its Chinese-style embellishments, is at 28 N.W. Fourth Avenue. The two story structure was built in 1905. The association acquired the building in 1963 and occupies the top floor with commercial activity on the ground floor. Gee How Oak Tin is a family association consisting of those with the surname Chan, Woo and Yuen. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 39.

Gue Hin Chou Theater. Portland.
The Gue Hin Chou Theater was located at the corner of S.W. Second Avenue and S.W. Ash Street. Established in 1879, it was considered the largest and most successful of the Chinese theaters, closing its doors in 1904. Reference: McConnell 1979: 125.

Guilds Lake Chinese Gardens. Portland.
Guilds Lake was approximately 1.5 miles from First Chinatown, near today’s N.W. 29th Street and Upshur Street. Chinese gardeners grew vegetable along the shore of the 400 acre lake starting in the 1870's. On March 12, 1886 non-Chinese destroyed their cabins, an act attributed to anti-Chinese sentiments. The lake itself was filled between 1906 and the 1920's. Reference: McConnell 1979: 70, 102.

Hip Sing Association Building. Portland.
The building is located at 211 N.W. Third Avenue, being built in 1889. Its brick construction, now covered with stucco, displays several Chinese design elements. The structure was designed by Justin Krumbein as an addition to the adjacent Seamen’s Bethel building. Ownership passed to the Hip Sing Association in 1947. (See New Wah Mei Building, Portland). Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 17-19.

Hop Sing Tong Building. Portland.
317 N.W. Third Avenue. The building was the headquarters of the Hop Sing Tong. The Hop Sing Tong was the fourth largest organization in the Portland Chinatown.

Hop Wo Washing and Ironing. Portland.
Hop Wo was located at the corner of S.W. Front Avenue and Morrison Street as shown in a photograph dating to the 1850s. It may be one of the earliest Chinese businesses in the area which is now part of the Morrison Bridge approach. Reference: Roulette 1994: 13.

House of Louie Building. Portland.
The House of Louie building is at 202-210 N.W. Fourth Avenue, being built in 1922. Purchased by Chinese in 1943, its exterior was altered in 1966 and 1988. The architectural elements and motifs lend itself to the New Chinatown Historic District theme. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 23.

Hung Far Low Building. Portland.
The Hung Far Low building, a two story brick structure, is located at 102-112 N.W. Fourth Avenue. It was built in 1916. Ownership and use by the Chinese dates to at least 1928, when Wong On opened the Hung Far Low restaurant. The restaurant relocated to Third Chinatown in 2005. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 29-30.

Hung Far Low Sign. Portland.
The original 2000 pound sign attached to the building announcing the Hung Far Low restaurant was restored and reinstalled in 2008-2009. The project was funded by both the community and city. It continues to promote chop suey, a Chinese American dish popular during the 1940's-1950's. Reference: “Return of the Hung Far Low Sign.” Photo.

Is Sing Clothing Manufacturing. Portland.
Is Sing Clothing Manufacturing was located on the south side of Salmon Street near today’s U.S. District Court. Established in 1875, it was the first Chinese business on the block. By 1886 the building had become the Tung Kee Laundry. In 1907, Moy Back Hin expanded the Chinese presence in the area by purchasing additional lots. Reference: Roulette 1994: 16-17, 19, 22-23.

Kwong Wah Lung and Company. Portland.
Kwong Wah Lung and Company was at 63 Second Avenue in First Chinatown. The store sold Chinese general merchandise and acted as a contractor for Chinese labor. Reference: Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project n.d.

Lake Tai Rock. Portland.
Lake Tai Rock is within the Terry Schrunk Park in the 1200 block of SW Third Avenue. The 16 foot tall, 17 ton limestone was shaped by the waters of Tai Lake (Tai Hu or Grand Lake), itself a meteor-impact crater filled with fresh water. The monument was a gift to Portland from its sister city, Suzhou, China and was placed in the park in 1996. The Chinese words on the monument read, “Rare stone calls forth the spirit.’ A plague at the base provides details of the gift and the significance of the stone. Reference: Taihu Lake; West n.d. Photo.

Lan Su Chinese Garden. Portland.
Lan Su Chinese Garden is located in the Portland Historic Chinatown District at NE Third Avenue and Everett Street. The city block size garden was originally known as Portland Classical Chinese Garden. With more than 500 plant species, a lake, bridge, etc., it is based on Suzhou classical gardens in the People’s Republic of China. The garden opened to the public in 2000. Reference: Classical Chinese GardenPhoto.

New Chinatown. Portland.
New Chinatown is an alternate name for Second Chinatown. (See Second Chinatown, Portland).

New Wah Mei Building. Portland.
The building is at 203-209 N.W. Third Avenue and was built for Portland’s Seamen’s Bethel Friends Society. It is a four story brick building covered with stucco, designed by Justin Krumbein. Chinese businesses occupied the first floor from 1920- 1944 when the entire building was purchased by a Chinese family. (See Hip Sing Association Building, Portland). Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 19-20.

Old Chinatown. Portland.
The first Chinatown of Portland, often known as Old Chinatown, was within S.W. First Avenue and S.W. Second Avenue and Washington Street and Alder Street by 1865. It included the Morrison Street dock where most new Chinese immigrants arrived. The structures were mostly constructed of brick with two-three stories. There were merchants, boarding houses, association headquarters, three theaters, restaurants, gambling halls, and laundries. By the late 1880's, it housed over 1500 Chinese with boundaries from Ash Street to Taylor Street and the Willamette River to N.W. Fourth Avenue. A fire in 1873 and a flood in 1894 prompted the relocation of much of the community to what was called New Chinatown, now a part of the Portland Old Town/Chinatown Historic District. The last Chinese establishment was razed in 1965, thereby, marking the end of First Chinatown. Reference: Chinatown Redevelopment Commission 1983: 4-5; McConnell 1979: 113-24, 133; National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 11-13, 15; “Old Town Chinatown, Portland, Oregon.”

Old Town-Chinatown Max Station. Portland.
Old Town-Chinatown Mac Station is located at NW First Street and Davis Street. The station is within Second Chinatown.

Ornamental Street Lights. Portland.
Fifty seven ornamental street lights line the business blocks between N.W. Third Avenue to Fifth Avenue and Burnside Street to Flanders Street in the Portland Old Town/Chinatown Historic District. Installed in 1984, the red light-posts with gold trim, representing prosperity and good luck, give the entire district a colorful and distinct appearance. Reference: Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2010; National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 3.

Pallay Building. Portland.
The Pallay building is at 231-239 N.W. Third Avenue, having been constructed in 1908. Designed by Alexander C. Ewart for M. Pallay, it served the Chinese community from its beginning. Commercial activity occurred on the ground floor with residences on the second floor. (See Wong’s laundry Building, Portland). Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 16.

Portland Chinese Cemetery, Lincoln Memorial Park. Portland.
An early, traditional Chinese cemetery is located in Lincoln Memorial Park, 11801 S.E. Mount Scott Road. The cemetery dates to 1909. Reference: "New Asians." Photo.

Portland Historic Chinatown District Landscape. Portland.
Buildings within the district that have been used by the Chinese and contribute to the overall appearance of the historic district include the following.


Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 7.

Portland Joss House. Portland.
Constructed at 431 S.W. Second Avenue in 1867 within First Chinatown, it is reportedly the first formal joss house in the city. Its principle deity was Kuan Yin. The temple was dismantled in 1959. Reference: McConnell 1979: 115,161; National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 8: 11.

Powell Boulevard Chinese Neighborhood. Portland.
Powell Boulevard Chinese Neighborhood extends along Powell Boulevard between 51 and 82nd Avenues. Reference: ”Travel Portland.”

Republic Café and Wok Express Building. Portland.
The Republic Café and Wok Express building is at 222-238 N.W. Fourth Avenue and was built in 1922. The building has housed Chinese merchants and associations since its construction. The restaurant from which the building draws its name opened in 1930. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 24.

New Chinatown. Portland.
An area of approximately 8 blocks, New Chinatown was bounded by N.W. Fifth Avenue on the east, N.W. Third Avenue on the west, Flanders Street on the north, and W. Burnside Street on the south. Many residents of the original Chinatown moved there after a fire (1873) and a flood (1894) destroyed or damaged more of the first Chinatown; thereby, prompting many Chinese to relocate to New Chinatown. By 1895, the area contained a hospital, four churches, two joss houses, five herb shops and a theater. By the early 1950's, urban renewal of the area resulted in only a few of its original businesses and buildings. The area became part of the Old Town/Chinatown Historic District in 1989. Reference: Old Town-Chinatown, Portland, Oregon, n.d. McConnell 1979: 133-134, 138; National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 1-2, Section 8: 13.

Sandy Boulevard Chinese Neighborhood. Portland.
Sandy Boulevard Chinese Neighborhood extends along Sandy Boulevard between NE 2nd and 68th Avenues. Reference: “Travel Portland.”

Shanghai Tunnels. Portland.
Although often associated with the Chinese, the Shanghai Tunnels actually are just connections between the basements of many early businesses in the area of NW Couch, Davis and Everett Streets. They were developed as a means of moving goods from the docks on the Willamette River to the basement storage areas. Reference: Shanghai Tunnels; “The Secrets of the Underground Tunnels”; “The Portland Underground FAQ”; Pickett 1990: Sec. C: 07.

Suey Sing Benevolent Association Building. Portland.
The Suey Sing Association building at 211 N.W. Fourth Avenue was built in 1889. The three story brick building covered with stucco was used by the Chinese in the early days, being purchased by them in 1944. Spaces within the building have been used as restaurants, retail stores, a fireworks company, medical company, noodle manufacturing, and the Chinese American Association headquarters. Reference: Chinatown Development Commission 1983: 15-16; National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 51-52.

Tong Sung Restaurant and Boarding House. Portland.
The Tong Sung Restaurant and Boarding House was on S.W. Second Street in First Chinatown. It was near the Morrison Street dock, the debarkation point for newly arrived immigrants. Sung Sung, the proprietor, established the operation in 1851. It has been reported as the earliest indication of a Chinese business in Portland. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 8: 1; Wegar 1995: 9.

Tuck Lung Grocery and Restaurant Building. Portland.
The building is at 140 N.W. Fourth Avenue. Its Chinese motif and function contribute to the atmosphere of Second Chinatown, aiding in the revitalization of the area. Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 31.

Tung Sang Laundry. Portland.
Tung Sang was the last Chinese laundry in Portland Chinatown by 1979 when it closed. Reference: McConnell 1979.

Twin Wo and Company. Portland.
Twin Wo and Company at 233 S.W. Second Avenue, was one of Portland’s leading merchant houses, being established about 1877. It also served as a Chinese labor contractor. The company moved to that location in 1909 after being purchased by Moy Back Hin, reportedly Portland’s first millionaire. The building was demolished around 1950. Reference: Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project n.d.; Roulette 1994: 17-25.

Wong’s Laundry Building. Portland.
Wong’s Laundry building is adjacent to the Pallay building, at 221-223 N.W. Third Avenue and was designed by the same architect. It is a two story building covered with stucco. Commercial activity on the first floor and residences on the second. (See Pallay Building, Portland). Reference: National Registry of Historic Places 1989: Sec. 7: 17.

References

Associated Press. 2004. “Parking Lot May Lie Atop Cemetery.” Seattle, November 18.

Burk, Rich. 2006. “The Rebirth of a Grand Ballpark.” http://www.pgepark.com/ Accessed October 12, 2010.

Chinatown Redevelopment Commission. 1983. Chinatown Development Plan. Portland, Oregon.

Chinese American Citizens Alliance-Portland Lodge. http://www.cacaportland.org/ Accessed November 4, 2010.

Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. 2010. http://ccbaportland.org/ Accessed October 26, 2010.

Classical Chinese Garden. http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/ Accessed October 8, 2010.

Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project n.d. http://kaga.wsulibs.wsu.edu/ Accessed November 22, 2010.

Email communication with Helen Ying. April 3, 2011.

Fagan, John L. 1993. “The Chinese Cannery Workers of Warrendale, Oregon, 1876-1930.” In Wegars, Priscilla . (ed.). 1993. Hidden Heritage: Historical Archaeology of the Overseas Chinese. Amityville, New York: Baywood Press.

McConnell, Gregory Clark. 1979. “An Historical Geography of the Chinese in Oregon.” Masters thesis. University of Oregon.

National Registry of Historic Places. 1989. Portland’s New Chinatown/Japanese Town.

“New Asians.” Blogging a Dead Horse. 2009, http://www.bloggingadeadhorse-dint.blogspot.com/ Accessed October 14, 2010.

Old Town-Chinatown, Portland, Oregon, n.d. http://en.wikipedia.org/ Accessed October 5, 2010.

Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. 2007. Dreams of the West. Portland, Oregon: Ooligan Press, Portland State University.

Picket, Nelson. 1990. “Free Tours of Old Town Set to Start.” The Oregonian; December 1, Sec. C: 07.

Portside, Vol. 12, No. 1, Winter, 1987: 4.

Portland Chinese Garden. 2010. http://www.portlandchinesegarden.org/ Accessed October 13, 2010.

“Return of the Hung Far Low Sign.” Portland Architecture. http://chatterbox.typepad,com/ Accessed: February 22, 2011.

Roulette, Bill R., David V. Ellis and Maureen Newman. 1994. Data Recovery at OR-MU-57, the U.S. Courthouse Site, Portland, Oregon. Portland, Oregon: Archaeological Investigations Northwest Inc.

Shanghai Tunnels. http://wikipedia.org/ Accessed Decmeber 3, 2010.

"Taihu Lake." http://en.wikipedia.org/ Accessed December 4, 2010.

The Oregonian. February 13, 1986: D6.

“The Secrets of the Underground Tunnels.” http://shanghaitunnels.info/ Accessed December 3, 2010.

“Travel Portland.” http://www.travelportland.com/ Accessed May 22, 2011.

Wegar, Priscilla. 1995. The Ah Hee Diggings: Final Report of the Archaeological Investigations at OR-GR-16, the Granite, Oregon “Chinese Walls” site, 1992-1994. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Anthropology Reports.

West, Robert D. n.d. “Plaza Blocks.” Places: Portland Places. http://myweb.msoe.edu/ Accessed December 4, 2010.

Wong, Marie Rose. 2004. Sweet Cakes, Long Journey. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press.

Friday, August 4, 2017

Baker County

Baker County Chinese


Auburn Chinese Cemeteries. Baker County.
There were at least two Chinese cemeteries in the community of Auburn. By the time of the demise of Auburn Chinatown, those interred had been exhumed and the bones shipped to China. At least one of the cemeteries was washed away in a “second washing of gold.” Reference: Alexander 1972: 50; Wegars 1995: 34.

Auburn Ditch. Baker County.
Auburn Ditch, a 25 mile long canal, was built by Chinese laborers in 1863. Reference: Mead 2006: 62.

Auburn Joss House. Baker County.
The original Auburn Joss House was located in Auburn Chinatown on the second story above a Chinese-owned store. Reference: Wegars 1995: 32-33.

Baker City Chinatown. Baker County.
In 1870, Baker City Chinatown was located at the southeastern edge of the downtown business district with the Powder River flowing along its easternmost edge. By 1886, it contained a half dozen stores and a population of about 400. The residents were miners, laundry men, cooks, wood sawyers, servants, vegetable gardeners, tailor, butcher, herb doctor, and fishermen who fished the Powder River for chub and suckers. Both the vegetables and fish were sold to the larger community. By 1903, the Chinatown was bounded by Valley Avenue, Auburn Avenue, Resort Street, and the Powder River. Reference: Dielman 2008: 96-97; Sanborn Insurance Map 1903; Wesley 1949: 84, 87-88.
Baker City Chinese Pavilion. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Pavilion is situated in the Baker City Chinese Cemetery within the town of Baker City. It commemorates the Chinese who were interred in the cemetery. The pavilion’s dedication ceremony was held on August 24, 2002 and was attended by representatives of the Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association of Portland, local community leaders, and those who donated their time and resources in the pavilion’s construction. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon, Object No. 2008.2.1.

Baker City Joss House. Baker County.
The joss house on Auburn Street in the Baker City Chinatown was completed in 1882-83. It was a two story, red brick structure measuring 20 feet by 45 feet with a balcony and porch in front. The interior was finished with hardwood. The first floor was used for social activities with the second floor containing a large sitting Buddha and altar upon which was a statue of Quan Yin. The structure was razed after 1941. Reference: Edson 1974: 67; Evans 1993: 6; Nokes 2009: 174-75; Wesley 1949: 87.
Baker City Chinese Cemetery. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Cemetery is located just outside Baker City at the end of Campbell Street, east of Interstate 84. Through the years, it fell into disrepair because of a lack of understanding as to its ownership. The Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association (CCBA) learned that it was the owner when a judge ordered a title search in a related land acquisition issue in 1991. The CCBA subsequently joined with the Baker County Historical Society in renovating the cemetery. With the help of Chinese American students and other volunteers, the cemetery was cleaned and a chain fence erected. The funeral burner was restored and a marker stone and path through the cemetery were also installed. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Nokes 2009: 176-77; Steele 1993: 5.

Baker City Chinese Cemetery Marker. Baker County.
A carved stone maker in the Baker City Chinese Cemetery commemorates those who had been interred there. The marker lists 17 names, out of the approximately 67, who were buried there before their remains were disinterred and shipped to China. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.8. Photo. 

Baker City Chinese Cemetery Funeral Burner. Baker County.
The Baker City Chinese Cemetery Burner was a prominent feature in the original cemetery. It was a square structure made of cut stone with an opening through which incense and prayer papers could be inserted and burned. Traditionally, the burner was used most frequently during the Ching Ming ceremony. It was in use from 1880 to 1940, being dismantled shortly thereafter. A restoration of the burner was accomplished using the original cut stones. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 1981.1.6806. Photo.

Baker City Chinese Gardens. Baker County.
The Chinese grew vegetables in an area on Spring Garden Avenue as well as on the west side of town. They were consumed by the Chinese and sold to non-Chinese. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Wegars 1995: 15.

Battle Creek Chinese Massacre. Baker County.
According to a lone Chinese survivor, Piute Indians killed approximately 40 Chinese miners near Battle Creek in 1866. The name Battle Creek is attributed to a fight between two Native American groups in 1870. Reference: Edson 1974: 13; McArthur 1982: 44.

China Creek Corral Pond. Baker County.
China Creek Corral Pond drains in a northerly direction joining South China Spring and is within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek1. Baker County.
The water source of China Creek is Elk Camp Spring within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. From there, China Creek flows approximately 4.5 miles in a southwesterly direction until its water is captured by China Creek Ditch. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek2. Baker County.
China Creek2 flows northeast into North Fork Burnt River near the Greenhorn Mining District. The area has widespread dredge tailings. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Greenhorn, Oregon, 1995.

China Creek Ditch. Baker County.
China Creek Ditch captures China Creek1 at 44°35'10″N 118°10'54″W, carrying its water approximately nine miles to form an intermittent lake at 44°33'21″N 118°10'10″W. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Creek Spring. Baker County.
China Creek Spring is approximately two miles northwest of China Creek. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

China Diggings. Baker County.
China Diggings were an area of placer mines on a hillside near the town of Sumpter. Reference: Wegars 1995: 24.

China Gate. Baker County.
China Gate is within the Baker City’s Leo Adler Memorial Parkway, a 2.5-mile riverside park and pathway connecting a series of eight public spaces adjacent to the Powder River in the City of Baker. The gate is tentatively located near Valley Avenue, part of the original Baker City Chinatown. Reference: Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities 2000; Leo Adler Memorial Parkway n.d.; “Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City” 2008.

China Gulch Placer Mine. Baker County.
China Gulch Placer Mine was located opposite Pole Creek, two miles north of Sumpter. China Gulch is shown as Slim Creek on current U.S.G.S. 7.5’ series maps. Mine tailings extend from north of China Gulch down Cracker Creek and past the town of Sumpter, all part of the Sumpter/Cracker Creek Mining District. Baker County records indicate China Gulch Placer Mine was operated by Chinese. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

China Lake. Baker County.
China Lake is southeast of China Creek at an elevation of 6731 feet above sea level. It is within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984. Photo.

China Spring. Baker County.
China Springs is within Foster Gulch, approximately three miles southwest of the community of Halfway. It lies within the Eagle Creek/Sparta Mining District where placer gold mining dates to the 1860's. Chinese miners had purchased much of the claims in the Eagle Creek District by 1872. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Richland, Oregon, 1984.

China Town. Baker County.
The historic community of China Town (two words) was approximately two miles west of Clarksville on Clarks Creek. By 1900, its Chinese population was 200, serving the miners of nearby Upper Burnt Creek River Mining District. The locale occasionally appears in the literature as Clarksville Chinatown. Reference: Baker County Library, Baker City, Oregon, Record No.133/907; McConnell 1979; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

Chinese Gardens. Baker County.
Chinese Gardens is part of the Baker City’s Leo Adler Memorial Parkway, a 2.5-mile riverside park and pathway connecting a series of eight public spaces adjacent to the Powder River in the City of Baker. The gardens will be located near China Gate and the Community Confluence and Celebration Space. Reference: Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities 2000; Leo Adler Memorial Parkway n.d.; “Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City” 2008.

Chinese Wall. Baker County.
Chinese Wall is made of rocks stacked by Chinese as a result of their placer mining along Union Creek north of Phillips Lake. Reference: Britton 2005; Brooks 2007: 105. Photo.

Clarksville Chinatown. Baker County.
Clarksville Chinatown, identified on maps as China Town, grew quickly and declined faster as the gold in the area was depleted. Baker County records and map information indicate that the Chinese conducted gold mining activity in the area surrounding Clarksville, particularly in the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Steeves 1984; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

Deer Creek Chinese Camp. Baker County.
Deer Creek Chinese Camp was on the Deer Creek, approximately 2½ miles northeast of the town of Sumpter. The Chinese owned the Sumpter Mining District claim, reportedly generating $3 per day per person. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Wegars 1995: 11.

Downie Creek Chinese Mine. Baker County.
Downie Creek Chinese Mine is on Downie Creek near McCully Fork of the Powder River, northwest of Sumpter. It is within the Sumpter/Cracker Creek Mining District. It was leased to the Chinese who were producing $9000 per year by 1900. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 147.

East China Spring. Baker County.
East China Spring is about ¾ miles southeast of China Creek within the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam, Oregon, 1984.

Eldorado Ditch. Baker County.
Originally only in Baker County, Eldorado Ditch was extended to the point where it ran across today’s Baker and Malheur Counties. Constructed from 1863 to 1878 by as many as 1000 Chinese laborers, it may be the longest canal in Oregon, measuring 135 miles in length with an 800 foot change in elevation over its length. It measured 8.5 feet wide at the top and 6 feet wide at the base, being 3 feet deep. The ditch brought water from Willow Creek Basin to the Shasta Mining District. The Ah Fat Company was the major labor contractor for the construction. A court decree and subsequent lack of maintenance and road construction in the area marked its disuse in 1925. Reference: Brooks 2007: 45; Evans 1993: 6; Mead 2006: 104; North Fork Malheur Geographic Management Area 2007: 77; Wegars 1995: 57-58.

Elk Creek Mine. Baker County.
Elk Creek flows southwest into the Middle Fork of John Day River. The area around the mine has experienced extensive placer and hard rock mining. Baker County records indicate Chinese ownership of the mine. Reference: Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1990.

Ellis Mine. Baker County.
 Ellis mine was between Cracker Creek and McCully Fork of the Powder River near the Rock Creek/Cracker Creek Mining District. Chinese miners leased the area and performed hydraulic mining throughout in the late 1800's. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 147; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

Gimlet Placer Chinese Mining Site. Baker County.
The Gimlet Placer Chinese Mining Site is on the east bank of Gimlet Creek within the Sumpter/Greenhorn Mining District. It is adjacent to Forest Service Road 7386 in an area of widespread placer mining that started in the 1860's and hard rock mining dating to 1880. Chinese artifacts at the site suggest that the Chinese worked the placer deposits. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Jaehnig 1997; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Whitney, Oregon, 1984.

Gold Rush RV Park. Baker County.
Gold Rush RV Park is located in the town of Sumpter at 680 Cracker Creek Road. The park was the site of Chinese placer mining as early as the 1880's. The stacked rocks resulting from the mining are still evident. Reference: Historic Sumpter 2003.

Hogem Ditch. Baker County.
The ditch ran from the West Fork of Creek to the town of Hogem. Although dug by non-Chinese in 1864, Ah Wah and Wing Lee bought an interest in it in July, 1870, under the name Wing Lee and Co. Ditch maintenance was then performed by 40-50 Chinese. Wing Lee sold his interest in October, 1870. Reference: Wegars 1995: 54.

Lily White Mine Disaster. Baker County.
Located northeast of Baker City in the Wallowa Mountains, the Lily White Gold Mine is thought to be the source of unverified stories about as many as 100 or as few as 13, Chinese miners being trapped in the mine sometime between 1886 and 1889. Either through a cave-in or the mine owner dynamiting the entrance so he would not need to pay the Chinese, the ghosts of the miners are said to be seen singing and dancing above the mine entrance on moon-lit nights. The U.S. Forest Service opened the mine in 2010 and found no evidence of foul play. References: Nokes 2009: 79; Nokes 1995: Dec. 21, C2; Wegars 1995:54.

McCully Fork Chinese Encampment. Baker County.
McCully Fork Chinese Encampment was where McCully Fork joins the Powder River within the Sumpter Mining District west of the town of Sumpter. The Chinese worked the tailings resulting from hydraulic mining. Reference: “Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County”; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta, Oregon,1985.

McEwen Chinatown. Baker County.
McEwen Chinatown was part of McEwen, a small gold mining town on the Powder River about five miles southeast of Sumpter. The Chinatown supported Chinese activity in nearby Upper Burnt Creek, Rock Creek, and Sumpter Mining Districts. Ah Fong, who owned a store there, was the last Chinese in the town by 1910. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Record No. 582/907. Object No. 1992.1.838.; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984; Wegars 1995: 13.

Minersville Chinese Encampment. Baker County.
Minersville Chinese Encampment was located on the East Fork of Miners Creek, approximately 2.5 miles northeast of McEwen. It was in the Sumpter/Rock Creek Mining Districts, an area characterized by numerous hard rock mines with mine tailings in the Powder River. Reference: Anonymous 2004; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984.

Packwood Ditch. Baker County.
Packwood Ditch brought water from Eagle Creek to the Kooster, Shanghai, and Powder River mines. It was constructed by as many as 300 Chinese laborers. Reference: Mead 2006: 108.

Poker Gulch. Baker County.
The seasonal stream of Poker Gulch flows southward into the Powder River near the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Poker Gulch appears as Poker Creek on current U.S.G.S. series 7.5’ maps. Baker County records and map information indicate the Chinese conducted mining activity in the gulch. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Steeves 1984: 200; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Blue Canyon, Oregon,1993.

Rye Valley Chinatown. Baker County.
Rye Valley Chinatown was a part of the community of Rye Valley which was located on North Fork of Dixie Creek. It provided support to the Chinese miners who worked the Lower Burnt River Valley and Mormon Basin Mining Districts. The area experienced widespread placer mining from the 1880's to the turn of the century. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Steeves 1984: 119; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Rye Valley, Oregon,1988.

Shanghai Channel. Baker County.
Shanghai Channel was an alternate name for Shanghai Gulch that eventually became known as Shanghai Creek. Chinese miners worked the area from the 1870's to the early 1890's. Reference: Steeves 1984: 205.

Shanghai Creek. Baker County.
Shanghai Creek flows northeast into Eagle Creek approximately one mile north of Sparta Butte in the Sparta/Eagle Creek Mining District. The first Chinese mining claim was filed in 1872 and soon thereafter they owned much of the claims in the Eagle Creek Mining District. Evidence of Chinese residences as well as artifacts, suggests that the name was derived from their presence. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; Edson 1974; Steeves 1984: 68-93, 203-205; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988; Wagner, N.S. 1943.

Shanghai Falls. Baker County.
Shanghai Falls is the narrow, steep-sided portion of Shanghai Creek as it flows through Shanghai Gulch. The falls begin about 2000 feet upstream from where the creek joins Eagle Creek. The place name is derived from its water source, Shanghai Creek. The loss of 1000 feet in elevation within 2000 feet offers a spectacular sight in the rainy season. Reference: Steeves 1984: 87.

Shanghai Gulch. Baker County.
Shanghai Gulch was an early name for Shanghai Creek, a tributary to Eagle Creek. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988.

South China Spring. Baker County.
South China Spring is approximately one mile southeast of China Creek in the Upper Burnt River Mining District. Reference: Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon, 1984.

Sparta Chinatown. Baker County.
Sparta Chinatown, with a population that reached about 1000, was located in the mining town of Sparta. The residents of Chinatown worked primarily as miners and laborers, usually in the Sparta and Eagle Creek Mining Districts. The Chinatown population decreased rapidly as railroad and ditch construction projects ended and the yield of gold from local mines declined. A fire in 1917 destroyed most of the buildings in Sparta as well as the Chinatown. The photograph at the top of the page shows Sparta Chinatown resident Ah Wing in traditional Chinese attire playing a san hsien (three string instrument). Reference: Bradley n.d.; Eastern Oregon Mining Association 1999; McConnell 1979; Meade 2006: 109; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta, Oregon,1985.

Sparta Ditch. Baker County.
Sparta Ditch connected Eagle Creek to the Thorn Gulch mines. Approximately 300 Chinese laborers were involved in its construction in 1871. The ditch was 32 miles in length. Reference: Evans 1993: 6; Varon n.d.; Wegars 1995: 56-57.

Sumpter Chinatown. Baker County.
Sumpter Chinatown was located on the west side of Cracker Creek in the town of Sumpter. Chinese miners were working placer deposits of gold in the area by 1874. The Chinatown had stores, a restaurant, residences, and a civic organization. By 1917, gold production from the mines was minimal with a fire destroying much of Sumpter as well as Chinatown. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541; Wegars 1995: 11, 24.

Sumpter Chinese Cemetery. Baker County.
The Sumpter Chinese Cemetery was on Auburn Street in the town of Sumpter. Disinterment and shipping of the remains occurred in 1903 with the last occurring in the 1930's. Reference: Wegars 1995: 24-25.

Sumpter Valley Railroad. Baker County.
 Sumpter Valley Railroad was built by Chinese laborers, starting in 1890. It extended from Baker City to Prairie City, arriving in 1896. Reference: Barlow and Richardson 1979: 39.

Union Creek Chinese Mining Site. Baker County.
Union Creek flows into today’s Phillips Lake on the Powder River. Chinese placer mining in the area was evident as indicated by numerous Chinese artifacts. Reference: Steeves 1984: 102-105, 210.

Wing Hing Yuen Company Store. Baker County.
The Wing Hing Yuen Company Store is one of the few identified businesses in the Baker City Chinatown. The store provided general merchandise to the community from the turn of the century to the 1940's. Reference: Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.13.122.

White Swan Mine. Baker County.
White Swan Mine is an incorrect name for the Lily White Mine. See Lily White Mine Disaster, Baker County.

References

Alexander, Maud Grant. 1972. Uncle Dave Discovers Gold. Pendleton, Oregon: Eastern Oregonian Publications Company.

Baker County Library. Baker City, Oregon. Record No. 582/907. Object No. 1992.1.838. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.


_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.1. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 1981.1.6806. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.13.122. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______. Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 192.1.541. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

_______, Baker City, Oregon. Object No. 2008.2.8. http://www.bakerlib.org. Accessed October 27, 2010.

Barlow, Jeffrey and Christine Richardson. 1979. China Doctor of John Day. Portland, Oregon: Binford and Mort.

Bradley, Phyllis. n.d. “Unrefined Sparta in the 19th Century.” http://www.oregongenealogoy. Com/ Accessed November 4, 2010.

Britton, Lisa. 2005. "Chinese Wall on Union Creek." Baker City Herald, July 13.

Brooks, Howard. 2007. A Pictorial History of Gold Mining in the Blue Mountains of Eastern Oregon. Baker City, Oregon: Baker County Historical Society.

“Celestials: The Chinese in Baker County.” http://www.oregongenealogy.com/ Accessed October 15, 2010.

Developing Public Art in Oregon’s Rural Communities. 2000. Oregon Arts Commission. http://www.oregonartscommission.org/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

Dielman, Gary. 2008. “Discovering Gold in Baker County Library’s 1870-1930s Photograph Collection.” Oregon Historical Quarterly, Spring: 88-87.

Eastern Oregon Mining Association. 1999. Oregon Gold Mining: Baker County Gold Districts. http://www.h2oaccess.com/ Accessed November 18, 2010.

Edson, Christopher H. 1974. The Chinese in Eastern Oregon. San Francisco: R&E Research Association.

Evans, Jim. 1993. “University of Idaho Expert Tells of Chinese History.” Baker City Herald. August 25.

Historic Sumpter. 2003. http://www.historicsumpter.com/ Accessed October 27, 2010.

Jaehnig, Manfred E. W. 1997. Evaluation of Archaeological Deposits at The Gimlet Placer Chinese Site, OR-BA-11, Baker County, Oregon. La Grande, Oregon: Mount Emily Archaeological Services.

Leo Adler Memorial Parkway . n.d. http://www.leoadlerparkway.com/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

McArthur, Lewis. 1982. 5th ed. Oregon Geographic Names. Oregon: The Press of the Oregon Historical Society.

McConnell, Gregory. 1979. “An Historical Geography of the Chinese in Oregon.” Masters thesis, University of Oregon.

Mead, George. 2006. A History of Union County with An appendix the Chinese in Oregon. LaGrande, Oregon: E-Cat Worlds.

Nokes, R. Gregory. 2009. Massacred for Gold. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press.

Nokes, R. Gregory. 1995. “Keeping the Lily White Gold Mine Story Alive.” The Oregonian. December 21, C2.

North Fork Malheur Geographic Management Area. 2007. Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Vale District, Malheur Resource Area. http://www.blm.gov/ Accessed December 13, 2010.

Sanborn Insurance Map. 1903. Sumpter. New York: Sanborn Map and Publishing Company Limited.

Steele, Jerry. 1993. “Cemetery Question Rests with County.” Baker City Herald. December 16.

Steeves, Laban R. 1984. “Chinese Gold Miners of Northeastern Oregon, 1862-1900.” Masters thesis, University of Oregon.

U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Blue Canyon, Oregon, 1993.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Beaverdam Creek, Oregon,1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ Series, Bridgeport, Oregon, 1990.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Greenhorn, Oregon, 1995.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Phillips Lake, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Richland, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle. 7.5' series, Rye Valley, Oregon, 1988.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Sparta Butte, Oregon, 1988.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Susanville, Oregon, 1999.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Unity Reservoir, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Whitney, Oregon, 1984.

Varon, Jodi n.d. http://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/ Accessed November 3, 2013.

“Voice of the River Resonates in Baker City.” Oregon News. 2008. http://www.nps.gov/ Accessed March 10, 2011.

Wagner, N.S. 1943. Shanghai Gulch Placer Mine. Oregon Department of Geology and Mines Information, unpublished file report, Baker Field office.

Wegars, Priscilla. 1995. The Ah Hee Diggings: Final Report of the Archaeological Investigations at OR-GR-16, the Granite, Oregon “Chinese Walls” Site, 1992-1994. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Anthropology Reports.

Wesley, Andrews. 1949. “Baker City in the Eighties.” Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 50: 84-97.

Benton County


Corvallis Chinatown. Benton County.
Corvallis Chinatown was centered on today’s SW Second Street and SW Jefferson Avenue in the town of Corvallis by at least 1880. At that time, there were four Chinese laundries in operation. By the 1880's, Chinatown was the home of clerks, railroad and construction workers, and business men. The business directories listed six Chinese stores: Hong Wah Company, Hop Sing Company, Wing Yet Company, Hop Sang and Company, Hop Wa, and Hop Gee. There were only five residents remaining in 1910 with the entire Chinatown destroyed by fire in the 1920's. Corvallis Chinatown is within the boundaries of Avery-Helm Historic District. Reference: Benton County Historical Society and Museum; “Chinese Americans in Corvallis n.d.”; Miller 2009; National Register of Historic Places Listings in Benton County, Oregon 2009; Sojourners in Corvallis.

References
Benton County Historical Society and Museum. 1867-1932 Business Directories. http://www.bentoncountymuseum.org/ Accessed July 4, 2014.

“Chinese Americans in Corvallis n.d.” Corvallis Community Pages. http://www.corvalliscommunitypages.com/ Accessed November 23, 2010.

Miller, Marilee. 2009. “The Corvallis Gazette, Corvallis, Oregon.” Coos County and Oregon History. http://coquillevalley.org/ Accessed November 29, 2010.

National Register of Historic Places Listings in Benton County, Oregon. 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/ Accessed November 30, 2010.

Sojourners in Corvallis: Early Chinese Importance in Corvallis, Oregon. http://www.youtube.com/ Accessed August 4, 2014.

Clackamus County

Clackamas County Bing Cherry Mural

Jackson Street Mural. Clackamus County.
The Jackson Street Mural was located at 10801 SE Main Street in the town of Milwaukie. The mural faced Jackson Street. Completed in 2001, the public art prominently depicted the cherries developed by Ah Bing at the Lewelling Nursery. The mural no longer exists. Reference: West n.d. “Milwaukie, Oregon.”

Lewelling Nursery. Clackamus County.
In the 1870s, Seth Lewelling of Milwaukie cultivated 100 acres of nursery stock. The foreman was Ah Bing who was in charge of the nursery’s 20-30 Chinese laborers. Lewelling planted two rows of experimental cherries, with Bing responsible for one row. Lewelling named the variety produced in Bing’s row in honor of the foreman. Reference: Olson 1930's.

Oregon City Canal. Clackamus County.
See Willamette Falls Locks, Clackamas County.

Oregon City Woolen Manufacturing Company. Clackamus County.
The Oregon City Woolen Manufacturing Company, established in 1865, was on the Willamette River in Oregon City. In 1868, it became the first textile manufacturer in the state to hire Chinese workers. Reference: Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association 2007: 56.

Oswego Iron Works. Clackamus County.
Oswego Iron Works of Oregon City, also known as Oswego Iron Company, is reported as the first industry in the Northwest to employ Chinese in a foundry and nearby iron mine. Starting in 1867, 18 Chinese began work in the mine. By 1888, there were as many as 150 Chinese workers, mostly in the charcoal-making process. The iron furnace is on the National Registry of Historic Places. Reference: Corning 1973: 177; Tucker 2002; National Registry of Historic Places n.d.

Willamette Falls Locks. Clackamus County.
Willamette Falls Locks, also known as the Oregon City Canal, is located on the Willamette River between West Linn and Oregon City. Chinese labor was used in the construction, being completed in 1872, and opening on January 1, 1873. The locks are on the National Registry of Historic Places and a Oregon Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. Reference: McConnell 1979: 74; West n.d. “Oregon City Oregon.”

References

Corning, Howard McKinley. 1973. Willamette Landings. Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society.

McConnell, Gregory. 1979. “An Historical Geography of the Chinese in Oregon.” Masters thesis, University of Oregon.

Miller, Marilee. 2009. “The Corvallis Gazette, Corvallis, Oregon.” Coos County and Oregon History. http://coquillevalley.org/ Accessed November 29, 2010.

National Registry of Historic Places. n.d. “Oregon Iron Company.” http://nrhp.focus.nps.gov/ Accessed December 5, 2010.

Olson, Charles Oluf. 1930's. The History of Milwaukie, Oregon. Federal Writers Project of the Works in Progress Administration, (date estimated).

Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. 2007. Dreams of the West. Portland, Oregon: Ooligan Press, Portland State University.

Tucker, 2002. “Oswego Iron Works.” The Oregon History Project. http://www.ohs.org/ Accessed December 5, 2010.

West, Robert D. n.d. “Milwaukie, Oregon.” Places. http://myweb.msoe.edu/ Accessed December 5, 2010.

_______. n.d. “Oregon City Oregon.” Places. http://myweb.msoe.edu/ Accessed December 5, 2010.

Clatsop County

Astoria Oregon Chinese Pavillion

Astoria Chinatown. Clatsop County.
Astoria Chinatown was located in the swampy area at the corner of Concomly and Washington Street (today’s 6th and Astor) by 1877. Its center was at Chenamus and Main (today’s 9th and Bond). It consisted of a several businesses, a boarding house, mess hall, laundry, and cabins. The Chinese worked outside the Chinatown in the fisheries, shoe manufacturing, and as laborers. The area was renovated with the Chinese being displaced by 1879 with some relocating to Upper Astoria. Astoria Chinatown is within the boundaries of Astoria Downtown Historic District. Representative businesses of Astoria Chinatown were: Hop Hing Lung Company opened in 1889. Lum Quing Grocery Company opened in 1908. Reference: National Register of Historic Places Listings in Clatsop County, Oregon 2009; Penner 1990: 26, 27, 29, 52, 63.

Astoria Chinese Burial Site. Clatsop County.
The site was on a hill near present-day 16th Street in the City of Astoria. There were at least five grave sites at the location by October 1876 when a Ching Ming celebration was conducted. Reference: Penner 1990: 25.

Astoria Chinese Gardens. Clatsop County.
Astoria Chinese Gardens was located in the area of today’s Harrison Drive loop in the City of Astoria. The gardeners provided fresh vegetables to Astoria Chinatown and the general population. A housing tract replaced the gardens after World War II. Reference: Penner 2011. 

Chinese Bunk House, Elmore Cannery. Clatsop County.
Chinese Bunk House at Elmore Cannery in Astoria was built in 1915 to house Chinese who worked at the cannery. They were the majority of workers. The building became the cannery office and was destroyed by fire in 1984. The cannery is one of the most well documented of the Columbia River canneries. Reference: “Astoria Warehousing Inc. Area.”

Garden of Surging Waves. Clatsop County.
The Garden of Surging Waves commemorates the Chinese heritage of Astoria. It is located in the northwest corner of Heritage Square between Duane, Exchange, 11th and 12th Streets, adjacent to City Hall. The open space with artwork and walking paths is within Heritage Park at 9th Street and Astor Street. The opening ceremony took place on May 17, 2014. Reference: http://astoriachineseheritage.org/ Accessed June 27, 2014. Photo.

Kinney Cannery. Clatsop County.
Kinney Cannery was at No. 1 Sixth Street. The cannery began operation in 1876 and had a workforce that was almost exclusively Chinese. The site was placed on the National Registry of Historic Places in 1989. Image Reference: Lockley 1928, vol. 2: 98; “No. 1 Sixth Street.”

Upper Astoria Chinatown. Clatsop County.
By 1880, the Upper Astoria Chinatown was clearly identifiable with a Chinese population of 924. Reference: Penner 1990: 63.

West Astoria Chinese Gardens. Clatsop County.
West Astoria Chinese Gardens were located near Smith Point, close to today’s W. Marine Drive in the City of Astoria during the late 1800's. Like Astoria Chinese Gardens, the growers provided fresh vegetable to the surrounding community. Reference: Penner 2011.

References

“Astoria Warehousing Inc. Area.” Astoria’s History Along the Tracks. http://homepage.mac.com/ Accessed February 28, 2011.

Lockley, Fred. 1928, History of the Columbia River Valley, From the Dalles to the Sea. Vol. 2. Chicago, Illinois: S.J. Clarke Publishing Company.

National Register of Historic Places Listings in Clatsop County, Oregon. 2009. http://en.wikipedia.org/ Accessed November 30, 2010.

“No. 1 Sixth Street.” Astoria’s History Along the Tracks. http://homepage.mac.com/ Accessed February 28, 2011.

Ooligan Press and Chinese Consolidated Benevolent Association. 2007. Dreams of the West. Portland, Oregon: Ooligan Press, Portland State University.

Penner, Liisa. 1990. The Chinese in Astoria, Oregon, 1870-1880. Astoria, Oregon.

Penner, Liisa. 2011. Email communication.

Columbia County

Chinese Fisherman on the Columbia River Oregon

Oak Point Chinese Residence.Columbia County.
The 1880 U.S. Census lists 18 Chinese living in one residence in the town of Oak Point, all employed as cannery workers. The names given below are those recorded by the census taker. It would appear that the census taker had some difficulty with the Chinese names.


Reference: Columbia County Oregon: History and Genealogy 1986.

Rainier Chinese Residence. Columbia County.
The 1880 U.S. Census lists 20 Chinese living in a single residence in the town of Rainier. The following are their names and occupation stated in the census. Note that some names are the same as those in Oak Point.



Reference: Columbia County Oregon: History and Genealogy 1986.

Reference

Columbia County Oregon: History and Genealogy. 1986. “Index of the 1880 Census of Columbia County, Oregon.” http://www.oregongeneeaology.com/ Accessed December 6, 2010.

Coos County



chinese china flat oregon


China Creek1. Coos County. 
China Creek1 flows westerly into Bradley Lake which drains into the Pacific Ocean at Brandon State Park. It was the site of early stream and beach gold placer mining. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Brandon, Oregon, 1980. 

China Creek2Coos County.
China Creek2 flows southeast into East Fork Coquille River. There was extensive gold mining throughout the area. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dora, Oregon, 1986.

China Creek3Coos County.
China Creek3 is a short canal that drains into Coquille River. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Riverton, Oregon, 1975.

China Creek4Coos County.
China Creek4 flows southeast into South Fork Coquille River near China Flat. It has long been an area of placer and hard rock mining. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, China Flat, Oregon, 1996.

China Creek Road1Coos County.
China Creek Road1 parallels China Creek2 for a short distance before heading in an easterly direction. Its name is taken from nearby China Creek. Reference: “China Creek, Oregon”; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dora, Oregon, 1986.

China Creek Road2Coos County.
China Creek Road2 parallels China Creek4 on the creek’s west side. Reference: “China Creek, Oregon”; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, China Flat, Oregon, 1996.

China FlatCoos County.
China Flat is on the east side of the South Fork Coquille River about ¼ of a mile south of China Creek4. There was both placer and hard rock mining for gold in the area. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, China Flat, Oregon, 1996.

China Flat Campground.Coos County. 
China Flat Campground is situated on China Flat. It is on the Rogue-Coquille Scenic Byway in the Siskiyou National Forest. Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, China Flat, Oregon, 1996. Photo.

China GulchCoos County.
The creek in China Gulch flows southeast into the Rogue River. There was extensive gold mining in the area that continues today. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle 7.5’ series, Mt. Reuben, Oregon, 1998. 

China Gulch RapidsCoos County.
China Gulch Rapids is at the confluence of China Gulch and the Rogue River northwest of the town of Rand. There was widespread gold mining in the area. Reference: U.S.G.S. 30x60’ series, Canyonville, Oregon.

China WallCoos County.
China Wall is along portions of China Creek2. The wall is made of stacked stones that were removed from the creek by Chinese placer miners in their search for gold. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dora, Oregon, 1986.

Coquille Valley Chinese MinesCoos County.
Chinese miners were prevalent in Coquille Valley by the early 1870's. The Chinese were forced from their mines by Euro-American miners in the mid 1880's. Reference: Douthit 1999: 101.

East Fork China CreekCoos County.
East Fork China Creek is a tributary stream about ¾ miles in length that flows into China Creek2.
Reference: U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dora, Oregon, 1986.

Johnson Creek Chinese CampCoos County.
Johnson Creek Chinese Camp was the home of 80 Chinese placer miners in 1898. Reference: Miller 2009.

Parkersburg CanneryCoos County.
The Parkersburg Cannery saw 24-30 Chinese workers arrive by train, to include their provisions and various religious objects on September 6, 1898. Reference: Miller 2009a.

Whiskey Run CreekCoos County.
Whiskey Run Creek is about six miles north of the town of Bandon. It was a large Chinese placer operation processing beach and river sand in the late 1800's. Reference: Oregon Gold 2010; U.S.G.S. quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bullards, Oregon. 1970.

References

“China Creek, Oregon.” MapQuest. http://www.mapquest.com/ Accessed December 15, 2010.

Douthit, Nathan. 1999. A Guide to Oregon South Coast History. Corvallis, Oregon: Oregon State University Press.

Miller, Marilee. 2009. Myrtle Point Enterprise, Myrtle Point, Oregon. http://www.coquillevalley.org/ Accessed  November 17, 2010.

_______. 2009a.Coquille City Herald. http://www.coquillevalley.org/ Accessed  November 22, 2010.

Oregon Gold. 2010. “Coos County Gold Claims.” http://www.oregongold.net/ Accessed November 23, 2010.

U.S.G.S. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Bourne, Oregon, 1984.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Brandon, Oregon, 1980.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, China Flat, Oregon, 1996.

_______. Quadrangle, 7.5’ series, Dora, Oregon, 1986.

_______. Quadrangle 7.5’ series, Mt. Reuben, Oregon, 1998.

_______. 30x60’ series, Canyonville, Oregon.